Aerial image of the place where the 1/3 nuclear energy plant is to be constructed in Angra, next to the Angra 1 and Angra 2 plants, in a coastal vicinity near the city of Angra dos Reis, south of Rio de Janeiro, in southeastern Brazil. credit: Divulgação Eletronuclear
through Mario Osava (Rio De Janeiro)Friday, March 29, 2019
Inter Press service
RIO DE JANEIRO, Mar 29 (IPS) – two navy-inspired initiatives are main Brazil’s new authorities, which incorporates a number of generals, down the course of mega-projects, that have had disastrous consequences in the closing four a long time.
completing the usa’s 1/3 nuclear strength plant and placing the development of eight others on track is the plan below study, introduced by way of the Minister of Mines and strength, Admiral Bento Albuquerque.
Brazil’s severe right-wing government risks repeating the catastrophe of the nuclear programme of the 1964-1985 army dictatorship , which in the 1970s additionally commenced to construct nine generating gadgets and controlled to position only two in operation, at a cost of tens of billions of greenbacks, even as leaving a 3rd plant unfinished.
any other foremost mission, which has been promised by way of decree earlier than April, is to build a toll road, a hydroelectric plant and a bridge over the usa’s largest river, in a nicely-preserved part of the Amazon rainforest.
it’s far an vintage proposal by way of retired wellknown Maynard Santa Rosa, head of the Strategic Affairs Secretariat of the Presidency, who defends it particularly for reasons of national safety.
The aim is to generate power for the center reaches of the Amazon basin, where Manaos, a city of 2.1 million human beings, is positioned, and to promote nearby improvement to reduce international environmental and indigenous businesses, the general wrote in a 2013 article.
A sizable paranoia many of the Brazilian army is the alleged hazard to countrywide sovereignty posed by means of indigenous reservations and non-governmental establishments (NGOs), which they are saying should cause a assertion of independence or to the “internationalisation” of parts of the Amazon rainforest.
President Jair Bolsonaro, a former army captain, warned of the dangers posed by the Triple A, an Andes-Amazon-Atlantic ecological corridor, even though it is simply a proposal by the Colombian NGO Gaia Amazonas, as a manner to protect nature in the a ways north of Brazil and components of 7 other countries that percentage the Amazon basin.
That was the purpose, in keeping with the president in office due to the fact that January, that Brazil decided no longer to host the 25th convention of the parties to the United international locations Framework conference on climate change (COP25), which in the end may be held in Chile in January 2020.
Retired popular Augusto Heleno Pereira, head of the Institutional protection cabinet, with the rank of minister, has repeatedly referred to the fear that Brazil will lose parts of the national territory if indigenous groups, especially businesses with reservations along the border, join collectively with NGOs or international corporations to are looking for independence.
the new government is the maximum militarised in Brazilian records, inclusive of more military, army and air pressure officers than in every other length, such as the remaining military dictatorship.
similarly to eight ministers, there are more than forty other high-degree government officials who come from the military. And that presence is about to expand, because the ministers of education, Ricardo Velez Rodriguez, and environment, Ricardo Salles, are in desire of the militarisation of faculties and of their ministries.
Rebuilt but unpaved portion of the BR-163 highway, in the Amazonian state of Pará, in northern Brazil. The authorities of Jair Bolsonaro desires to build a segment of the road that changed into in the unique design however was now not even marked out inside the center of the Amazon rainforest. credit: Fabiana Frayssinet/IPS
Rebuilt however unpaved portion of the BR-163 toll road, inside the Amazonian nation of Pará, in northern Brazil. The authorities of Jair Bolsonaro wants to build a phase of the road that become within the unique layout however turned into not even marked out in the middle of the Amazon rainforest. credit score: Fabiana Frayssinet/IPS
army thinking, therefore, orients diverse sectors of the government. this is the case of the career of the Amazon rainforest by means of large infrastructure works. “Integrating in order now not at hand over” the Amazon turned into the slogan of the dictatorship, which has been taken up again through the current management.
in the electricity quarter, the nuclear option was implicit in the appointment of Admiral Albuquerque, as he became formerly the military’s director standard of nuclear and technological improvement.
He become in price of a programme to construct four traditional submarines, the first of which changed into launched in December, and a nuclear-powered submarine.
The military evolved a parallel nuclear programme, kept mystery for several years, that succeeded in learning uranium enrichment generation, despite the fact that Brazil had assumed international commitments to renounce any use of nuclear weapons.
Multiplying the number of nuclear energy flora is part of the technological and strategic plans of the army that do not forget the improvement of information in that region essential.
in addition, Brazil has big uranium deposits and advanced a nuclear gasoline and system enterprise that might be boosted by using the call for created by using new strength flowers and submarines.
but there is a sturdy opportunity of repeating the frustration of the programme initiated in the Seventies, due to comparable financial difficulties. within the face of the overseas debt crisis of the Nineteen Eighties, several mega-tasks of the military dictatorship, labeled “pharaonic” by way of critics, have been aborted.
Brazil acquired its first nuclear electricity plant inside the u.s.a., with a reactor from Westinghouse. It became named Angra 1 because it changed into installed one hundred thirty km west of Rio de Janeiro as the crow flies, on the threshold of the sea, within the municipality of Angra dos Reis.
The works lasted from 1972 to 1982 and the plant commenced to operate in 1985, with a producing capability of 657 megawatts.
meanwhile, in 1975, the navy government signed a nuclear cooperation agreement with Germany, which covered the development of eight other plants, with generation switch.
handiest the first of them, Angra 2, installed inside the identical small bay surrounded through mountains, finally began to perform – after a procedure that lacked transparency – in 2000, generating 1,650 megawatts.
the second German generation unit, Angra 3, commenced to be built in 1984, even though paintings became interrupted two years later and best resumed between 2010 and 2015.
Reviving a project of astronomical prices sounds like an not likely mission for a central authority that pledged to voters that it’d perform a financial adjustment, starting through decreasing the deficit of the social safety machine.
except, the plant might be using previous era and system stored for extra than 3 many years, all from Germany, that is dismantling its ultimate nuclear vegetation.
against the expansion of Brazil’s nuclear industry conspires the cost of its power, an awful lot greater highly-priced than hydropower, which is ample in Brazil, and than solar and wind energy – alternatives sources whose cost is progressively losing.
especially, megaprojects have a song file that consists of many disasters.
The dual carriageway that widespread Santa Rosa wants to sell in the Amazon is precisely the northernmost and deserted stretch of one of the mega-projects designed via the army dictatorship and whose creation started in the early Nineteen Seventies.
BR-163 turned into alleged to pass the whole Brazilian territory from south to north, stretching a distance of 3,470 km. but construction came to a halt in Santarém, where the Tapajós River flows into the Amazon River. It became a white elephant for more than two a long time, until the expansion of soybeans in the state of Mato Grosso made it useful once more.
The idea of the new undertaking is to finish it up to the Surinam border, but it isn’t economically justified. The stretch wherein the most important soybean manufacturing is transported to the ports for export is economically possible, but ninety km of that reach are nevertheless now not paved, which would require a big investment.
The authorities of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2011), of the leftist people’ celebration (PT), additionally unleashed a wave of mega-tasks that in large part failed, which includes railways, ports, shipyards, refineries and petrochemical flora, and was corruption scandals.
big hydroelectric flowers have been finished, however brought on protests from nearby populations, which tarnished their photo. And that might in all likelihood be the reaction if the modern government’s works within the Amazon keep to forge beforehand, for the reason that they would motive harm to a number of indigenous and “quilombola” – Afro-descendant groups – territories.
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